Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin no samösa gere geologi awö biologi,[5] si tehöngö ba zi sagörö ulidanö börö zöndrania sanandrösa ba nifotöi teori evolusi. Molo'ö Darwin fefu zauri ba gulidanö no tumbu moroi mböröta zauri föna (common ancestors). Ma'ökhö teori andre no tobali sambua teori nitemagö ba zi sagörö ulidanö ba no tobali konsep ni'odane-danegö bakha ba wamahaö nifotöi sains.[6]

Charles Darwin
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Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg
Darwin, te 1854, me ifa'anö mbuku On the Origin of Species ba woraka[1]
BornCharles Robert Darwin
(1809-02-12)12 Februari 1809
The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England
Died19 April 1882(1882-04-19) (ndröfi 73)
Down House, Downe, Kent, England
Resting placeWestminster Abbey
Known for
Spouse(s)Emma Wedgwood (Templat:Abbr Templat:Abbr)
Children10
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsNatural history, geology
Institutions
Tertiary education:

Professional institution:

Academic advisors
Influences
InfluencedHooker, Huxley, Romanes, Haeckel, Lubbock
Signature
"Charles Darwin", with the surname underlined by a downward curve that mimics the curve of the initial "C"

Fa'auriniaSunting

Fa'iraononiaSunting

 
Charles Darwin me 1816 (fitu fakhe ndröfi), fatua lö mate ninania. Ba dangania igogohe zinanö.

Tumbu Charles ba Shrewsbury, Shropshire, me 12 Februari 1809, ono numero lima moroi zi daönö ndraono khö Robert Darwin, samösa dokter ndra niha so'okhöta, ba Susannah Darwin (mado Wedgwood). Ira tuania, Erasmus Darwin faoma Josiah Wedgwood, no niha sangeregesi tödö ena'ö böi so wangosawuyu niha. Erasmus samösa no so khönia danömö konsep evolusi simane si no isura bakha ba Zoonomia (1794) [7] ba hiza ma'uwunia Charles dania sa zangodödögö sibai ba wo'angeragö ya'ia.[8]

Me ŵalu fakhe Charles no oroma wa adöni dödönia ba waö-waö zauri ba danö, börö no ibörötaigö wangowuloi ba ba wananö zinanö. Ba mbawa si fitu ndröfi andre göi mate ninania. Döfi aefa da'ö (1818) i'o'ö lahe ga'ania Erasmus möi ba zekola Anglikan Shrewsbury ba toröi ira ba asrama.[9]

Götö mbaŵa wa'aukhu (Yuni, Yuli, Agustus) 1825 fao Charles khö namania wanolo niha sinumana ba Shropshire. Aefa da'ö faoma ga'ania itohugö zekolania ba zekola University of Edinburgh Medical School (ba ginötö da'ö sekola tobali dokter fondrege tehöngö ba Inggris). Ba hiza lo adöni dödönia ba wamaha'ö ba da'ö irege lö ibe tödönia kuliahnia. Andrö i ibe dödönia wamomaha ya'ia ba nifotöi taksidermi, ya'ia da'ö lala wame ena'ö böi obou gaurifö heŵa'ae lö auri ia sa'ae. Samomaha ya'ia ba John Edmonstone, samösa zawuyu saitö uli si no te'efa'ö moroi ba wangosawuyu.[10]

Ba ndröfi si dua ba universitas fao awö Plinian Society, sambua organisasi samonahia wasöndrata li ba gotalua ndra mahasiswa somasi wamahaö ilmu alam sadölö aefa moroi ba wamati ba ira mahasiswa solo'ö konsep ortodoks ilmu alam si faruka famati.[11]

Gasa-gasa da'ö itugu aföli ia wamahaö ndra gurunia ba zekola dokter ba itugu abua khönia wamalua operasi ba niha. Fakhamö ifaigi dombua operasi si lö sökhi folau, ba fatua lö nasa awai no iröi. Afuriatania lö fao ia sa'ae ba wamahaö sanandrösa ba operasi. Andrö ia zadöni dödönia fariawö khö ndra sangosili waö-waö danö (geologi). Samuza ma'ökhö ifahuhuosi khö nawönia nifotöi evolusi nitöi-töi Lamarck. I'anema'ö aboto ba dödönia zinura duania si no irai ibaso sanandrösa zoonomia. Ba hiza me ifuli ibaso mbuku zoonomia andrö, imane tödönia wa oya niŵa'ö bakha ba mbuku andrö ha spekulasi si tebai mufaduhu'ö.[12]

Börö me lö ibe dödönia zekola dokter, ifaso ia amania möi sekola ba Christ's College ba Cambridge. Ba da'ö isöndra Bachelor of Arts, si tobali ndrela ena'ö tobali fandrita Anglikan. Ba da'ö göi falukha ia khö samösa guru sotöi John Steven Henslow, sangosili biologi. Ifosumange Charles gurunia andre börö me itimbagö wangosawuyu niha. Afuriatania tobali Henslow awönia sasese mame mene-mene khönia ba zikolania.[13][14]

Ba ujian afuriata me 1 Januari 1831, isöndra note salaŵa ba studi klasik, matematika faoma fisika. Bosi nomoro 10 ia moroi ba gotalua zi 178 zangawalisi sekola ndröfi andrö.[15]

Toröi Darwin ba Cambridge irege mbaŵa si önö 1831. Ba ginötö andrö ibaso zinura Alexander von Humboldt, Personal Narrative, ba manumbu ba dödönia we'amöi ba Hulo Tenerife ba wangosili geologi ba mbanua tropis.

Börö da'ö ifa'anö ia Charles faoma wamahaö ba kalasi geologi nifa'ema Adam Sedgwick. Ba mbaŵa wa'aukhu (li Indonesia musim panas) fao ia khö gurunia we'amöi ba Wales wangosisi bosi niha mbanua (strata).

Lö ara aefa da'ö itema zura moroi khö gurunia Henslow sangandrö ena'ö fao Charles awö Robert Fitzroy, sondrönia'ö göfa HMS Beagle, möi mamalua ekspedisi ba mbanua Amerika Selatan dua fakhe wa'ara. Lö fao dödö namania ba gohitö dödö andre, ba hiza börö me fao dödö duania Josiah Wedgwood II afuriatania itehegö khö Charles wefao ba ekspedisi andrö. Ekspedisi andre lua-luania tenga ha dua fakhe ba hiza lima fakhe wa'ara.[16]

Fao ba ekspedisi HMS BeagleSunting

 
Ekspedisi HMS Beagle samasui ulidanö

Me 1831, me awena töra dua wulu fakhe Charles, no tobali ia samösa naturalis si fao awö Robert Fitzroy ba ekspedisi HMS Beagle wamasui si sagörö gulidanö lima fakhe wa'ara. Me larugi Hulo Galapagos ilau mangosili geologi Charles ba manofu-nofu ia wa aurifö ba sinanö si tumbu ba zi sambua nahia oi fabö'ö moroi ba zinanö ba aurifö sauri ba nahia bö'ö.

Isura bakha ba mbukunia si tobali bua wangosilinia ba da'ö,[8]

"Me ya'o samösa naturalis so yaŵa ba göfa HMS Beagle, tokea ndra'o me u'ila hewisa fakta wa'amuzawili niha si toröi ba Amerika Selatan ba amakhaita geologi niha si so iada'a ba niha si so me föna ba mbanua sebua andre. Fakta andre mamokai hörögu ba zanandrösa böröta ngawalö zauri nifotöi spesies, sambua misteri fondrege ebua, simane niŵa'ö ndra filsuf fondrege atua-tua.."

Teori evolusiSunting

Me mangawuli ia ba Inggris no tehöngö zinura Charles sanandrösa ba geologi ba gotalua ndra sangosili, börö me Desember 1835 me so ia na sa ba ekspedisi Beagle no ifa'ohe'ö zinurania khö gurunia Henslow ba khö mato ha'uga naturalis.[17]

FongambatöSunting

Charles mangowalu khö gasiŵania Emma Wedgwoodon me 29 Yuli 1839. So khöra fulu ndraono.[18]

IraononiaSunting

Dafulu nono khö Charles: darua zimate awuyu, ba samösa zi mate me fulu fakhe ndröfi (Annie). Börö me fo'omonia no sahatö khöra (gasiŵania), i'alu-alui Charles na börö wa'amate awuyu ndraononia andrö börö wangowalu si fakhai ahatö andre.[19]

Heŵa'ae simanö ato ndraononia sanöndra fa'auri, simanö göi ndra ma'uwunia. Ononia George tobali ere astronomi, Francis ere botani, ba Horace tobali ere teknik sipil si fao awö Fellows of the Royal Society. Ya'ira si datölu andre göi manema döi balugu.[20] Ononia Leonard tobali saradadu, politikus, ere ekonomi, ere eugenika ba guru khö Ronald Fisher samösa gere statistik ba biologi evolusioner.[21]

Fa'amateniaSunting

 
Lewatö Charles Darwin ba zinga John Herschel ba Westminster Abbey, London

Iröi gulidanö Charles Darwin me 19 April 1882. Molo'ö doto, mate ia börö wökhö dötö'a sotöi "angina pectoris",[22] heŵa'ae ato niha sanguma'ö wa no göna ia fökhö chagas me i'usu ia sambua utu ba Argentina me 1835.[23] Omasi Charles na lako'o ia ba lewatö St Mary ba Downe, ba hiza börö wangandrö zato lafolombase ia ba Westminster Abbey ba zinga John Herschel faoma Isaac Newton. Fogo'onia tefalua me luo Rabu 26 April nifaigi ribu niha.[24]

OndröitaniaSunting

Ba ginötö me mate ia, no ato ndra sangosili samaduhu'ö teori evolusi. Me baŵa si önö 1909 tefalua wanörötödö sebua 100 fakhe wa'atumbunia faoma 50 fakhe me teraka mbuku On the Origin of Species.[25] Töra 400 ndra sangosalahini wamareta ba ira sangosili moroi ba zi sagörö ulidanö fao ba wanörötödö andrö.

UmbuSunting

  1. Freeman 2007, hlm. 76.
  2. "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 16 March 2015. 
  3. "Darwin Endless Forms » Darwin in Cambridge". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 23 March 2017. 
  4. "Charles Darwin's personal finances revealed in new find". 22 March 2009. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 19 October 2017 – via www.telegraph.co.uk. 
  5. (Desmond, Moore & Browne 2004)
  6. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Viking. hlm. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-670-02053-9. 
  7. Smith, Homer William (1952). Man and his gods. Boston: Little, Brown. nga'örö 339.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. (2006). On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486450063. OCLC 62857845. nga'örö ix.
  9. Darwin, Charles (1958). Barlow, Nora (ed.). The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow. London: Collins. nga'örö 21-25.
  10. (Darwin 1958, hlm. 47–51)
    (Desmond & Moore 2009, hlm. 18–26)
  11. Desmond & Moore 1991, hlm. 31–34.
  12. Darwin, Charles (1958). nga'örö 46-49.
  13. Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (2009). Darwin's sacred cause : race, slavery and the quest for human origins. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-035-8. nga'örö 48, 50-51.
  14. Darwin, Charles (1958). nga'örö 64-66.
  15. Browne, E. Janet (1995). Charles Darwin: vol. 1 Voyaging. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 1-84413-314-1. nga'örö 97.
  16. Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-7181-3430-3. n. 94–97.
  17. Letters on Geology. Darwin Online.
  18. Desmond & Moore (1991).
  19. Darwin A Case Study In His Own Theory: Inbreeding. npr.
  20. Berra, Tim M. (2013). Darwin and His Children: His Other Legacy. Oxford University Press. nga'örö 101, 129, 168.
  21. Edwards, A. W. F. (2004). Darwin, Leonard (1850–1943). Bakha ba: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.
  22. Colp, Ralph. (2008). "The Final Illnes". Darwin's Illness. nga'örö. 116–120. doi:10.5744/florida/9780813032313.003.0014. ISBN 978-0-8130-3231-3.
  23. Chagas disease 101 | Nature, "Charles Darwin wrote in his journal The Voyage of the Beagle about having been bitten by the Triatoma kissing bug when visiting Chile in 1835, and subsequently suffering poor health, including vomiting, gut pain, headaches and depression, for the rest of his life. The presence of gastric symptoms and his ultimate demise from cardiac problems have led some scholars to propose that Darwin was suffering from Chagas disease, although certain other factors suggest otherwise — including the fact that the parasite is not transmitted directly in the bite of the insect. The many other explanations put forward include stress, allergies and lactose intolerance — an inability to digest milk and dairy products, made worse by Darwin's love of cream. The truth might be unattainable without exhuming Darwin's body from Westminster Abbey in London, United Kingdom, to look for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA."
  24. Charles Darwin.Westminster Abbey.
  25. Wyhe, John van. Charles Darwin: gentleman naturalist. Darwin Online.